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Household Income That’s Subject to Taxes Declines Next Year

Economy
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These Are the New Federal Tax Brackets and Standard Deductions For 2023

Now for the inflation good news. Thankfully, as it relates to federal income taxes, the IRS makes annual adjustments to certain tax provisions. Simply put, the higher the inflation, the more tax credit benefit, which includes tax credits and taxable wages adjusted downward. So, in addition to receiving much higher COLA increases on Social Security payments and earning an interest rate in excess of 9% on U.S. Savings Bonds, those making an income in 2023 are likely to see more take-home pay.

The IRS Numbers Are In

The IRS announced the 2023 inflation adjustments to the standard deduction and other tax provisions for the 2023 tax year. The adjustments affect 60 provisions in the tax code, and leave a few key provisions unchanged.

Highlights of Changes in Revenue Procedure 2021-38

The tax year 2023 adjustments described below generally apply to tax returns filed in 2024.  A higher level of details about these annual adjustments can be found in IRS Revenue Procedure 2022-38PDF.

The standard deduction for married couples filing jointly for tax year 2023 rises to $27,700 up $1,800 from the prior year. For single taxpayers and married individuals filing separately, the standard deduction rises to $13,850 for 2023, up $900, and for heads of households, the standard deduction will be $20,800 for tax year 2023, up $1,400 from the amount for tax year 2022.

 Marginal Rates: For tax year 2023, the top tax rate remains 37% for individual single taxpayers with incomes greater than $578,125 ($693,750 for married couples filing jointly).

The other rates are:

  • 35% for incomes over $231,250 ($462,500 for married couples filing jointly);
  • 32% for incomes over $182,100 ($364,200 for married couples filing jointly);
  • 24% for incomes over $95,375 ($190,750 for married couples filing jointly);
  • 22% for incomes over $44,725 ($89,450 for married couples filing jointly);
  • 12% for incomes over $11,000 ($22,000 for married couples filing jointly).

The lowest rate is 10% for incomes of single individuals with incomes of $11,000 or less ($22,000 for married couples filing jointly).

 The Alternative Minimum Tax exemption amount for tax year 2023 is $81,300 and begins to phase out at $578,150 ($126,500 for married couples filing jointly for whom the exemption begins to phase out at $1,156,300). The 2022 exemption amount was $75,900 and began to phase out at $539,900 ($118,100 for married couples filing jointly for whom the exemption began to phase out at $1,079,800).

 The tax year 2023 maximum Earned Income Tax Credit amount is $7,430 for qualifying taxpayers who have three or more qualifying children, up from $6,935 for tax year 2022. The revenue procedure contains a table providing maximum EITC amount for other categories, income thresholds and phase-outs.

 For 2023, the monthly limitation for the qualified transportation fringe benefit and the monthly limitation for qualified parking increases to $300, up $20 from the limit for 2022.

 For the taxable years beginning in 2023, the dollar limitation for employee salary reductions for contributions to health flexible spending arrangements increases to $3,050. For cafeteria plans that permit the carryover of unused amounts, the maximum carryover amount is $610, an increase of $40 from taxable years beginning in 2022.

 For tax year 2023, participants who have self-only coverage in a Medical Savings Account, the plan must have an annual deductible that is not less than $2,650, up $200 from tax year 2022; but not more than $3,950, an increase of $250 from tax year 2022. For self-only coverage, the maximum out-of-pocket expense amount is $5,300, up $350 from 2022. For tax year 2023, for family coverage, the annual deductible is not less than $5,300, up from $4,950 for 2022; however, the deductible cannot be more than $7,900, up $500 from the limit for tax year 2022. For family coverage, the out-of-pocket expense limit is $9,650 for tax year 2023, an increase of $600 from tax year 2022.

 For tax year 2023, the foreign earned income exclusion is $120,000 up from $112,000 for tax year 2022.

 Estates of decedents who die during 2023 have a basic exclusion amount of $12,920,000, up from a total of $12,060,000 for estates of decedents who died in 2022.

 The annual exclusion for gifts increases to $17,000 for calendar year 2023, up from $16,000 for calendar year 2021.

 The maximum credit allowed for adoptions for tax year 2023 is the amount of qualified adoption expenses up to $15,950, up from $14,890 for 2022.

Brand New for 2023

The Inflation Reduction Act extended some energy-related tax breaks and indexed for inflation the energy-efficient commercial buildings deduction beginning with the tax year 2023. For 2023, the applicable dollar value used to determine the maximum allowance of the deduction is $0.54 increased by $0.02 for each percentage point by which the total annual energy and power costs for the building are certified to be reduced by a percentage greater than 25 percent (but not above $1.07). The applicable dollar value used to determine the increased deduction amount for certain property is $2.68 increased (but not above $5.36) by $0.11 for each percentage point by which the total annual energy and power costs for the building are certified to be reduced by a percentage greater than 25 percent.

Items Unaffected by Inflation Indexing

By statute, these items that were indexed for inflation in the past are currently not adjusted.

The personal exemption for tax year 2023 remains at 0, as it was for 2022, this elimination of the personal exemption was a provision in the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act.

 For 2023, as in 2022, 2021, 2020, 2019 and 2018, there is no limitation on itemized deductions, as that limitation was eliminated by the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act.

 The modified adjusted gross income amount used by joint filers to determine the reduction in the Lifetime Learning Credit provided in § 25A(d)(2) is not adjusted for inflation for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2020. The Lifetime Learning Credit is phased out for taxpayers with modified adjusted gross income in excess of $80,000 ($160,000 for joint returns).

What Else is Impacted

The maximum contribution amount for a 401(k) or similar workplace retirement plan is governed by yet another formula that uses September inflation data. It is estimated that the contribution limit will increase to $22,500 in 2023 from $20,500 this year and the catch-contribution amount for those age 50 or more will rise from $6,500 to at least $7,500.

The child tax credit under current law is $2,000 per child is not adjusted for inflation. But the additional child tax credit, which is refundable and available even to taxpayers that have no tax liability, is adjusted for inflation. It is expected to increase from $1,500 to $1,600 in 2023.

For those that look forward to capping out payments to Social Security, there is bad news. This has also increased. According to the 2022 Social Security Trustees Report, the wage base tax rate is projected to increase 5.5% from $147,000 to $155,100 in 2023.

Costs are rising, but so are deductions. It’s improbable that the reduced taxes will offset skyrocketing inflation, but at least there is one financial category that is helped by the increases.

Paul Hoffman

Managing Editor, Channelchek

Sources

https://www.irs.gov/newsroom/irs-provides-tax-inflation-adjustments-for-tax-year-2023

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