The Labor Department’s December jobs report reveals continued strength in the U.S. economy that defies expectations of an imminent slowdown. Employers added 216,000 jobs last month, handily beating estimates of 170,000. The unemployment rate remained low at 3.7%, contrary to projections of a slight uptick.
This hiring surge indicates the labor market remains remarkably resilient, even as the Federal Reserve wages an aggressive battle against inflation through substantial interest rate hikes. While many anticipated slowing job growth at this stage of the economic cycle, employers continue adding workers at a solid clip.
Several sectors powered December’s payroll gains. Government employment rose by 52,000, likely reflecting hiring for the 2024 Census. Healthcare added 38,000 jobs across ambulatory care services and hospitals, showing ongoing demand for medical services. Leisure and hospitality contributed 40,000 roles, buoyed by Americans’ continued willingness to dine out and travel.
Notable gains also emerged in social assistance (+21,000), construction (+17,000), and retail (+17,000), demonstrating broad-based labor market vitality. Transportation and warehousing shed 23,000 jobs, a rare weak spot amid widespread hiring.
Just as importantly, wage growth remains elevated, with average hourly earnings rising 0.4% over November and 4.1% year-over-year. This exceeds projections, signaling ongoing inflationary pressures in the job market as employers compete for talent. It also challenges hopes that wage growth would start moderating.
Financial markets reacted negatively to the jobs data, with stock index futures declining sharply and Treasury yields spiking. The strong hiring and wage numbers dampen expectations for the Fed to begin cutting interest rates in the first half of 2023. Traders now see reduced odds of a rate cut at the March policy meeting.
This report paints a picture of an economy that is far from running out of steam. Despite the steepest interest rate hikes since the early 1980s, businesses continue adding jobs at a healthy pace. Consumers keep spending as well, with holiday retail sales estimated to have hit record highs.
Meanwhile, GDP growth looks solid, inflation has clearly peaked, and the long-feared recession has yet to materialize. Yet the Fed’s priority is returning inflation to its 2% target. With the job market still hot, the path to lower rates now appears more arduous than markets anticipated.
The data supports the notion that additional rate hikes may be necessary to cool economic activity and tame inflation. However, the Fed also wants to avoid triggering a recession through overtightening, making its policy stance a delicate balancing act.
For most of 2023, the central bank enacted a series of unusually large 0.75 percentage point rate increases. But it downshifted to a 0.5 point hike in December, and markets once priced in rate cuts starting as early as March 2024. This jobs report challenges that relatively dovish stance.
While inflation is clearly off its summertime highs, it remains well above the Fed’s comfort zone. Particularly concerning is the continued strong wage growth, which could fuel further inflation. Businesses will likely need to pull back on hiring before the wage picture shifts significantly.
Despite market hopes for imminent rate cuts, the Fed has consistently stressed the need to keep rates elevated for some time to ensure inflation is well and truly tamed. This data backs up the central bank’s more hawkish messaging in recent weeks.
The strong December jobs numbers reinforce the idea that the economy enters 2024 on solid ground, though facing uncertainties and challenges on the path ahead. With inflation still lingering and the full impacts of rising interest rates yet to be felt, the road back to normalcy remains long.
For policymakers, the report highlights the delicate balancing act between containing prices and maintaining growth. Cooling the still-hot labor market without triggering a downturn will require skillful and strategic policy adjustments informed by data like this jobs report.
While markets may hope for a swift policy pivot, the Fed is likely to stay the course until inflation undeniably approaches its 2% goal on a sustained basis. That day appears further off after this robust jobs data, meaning businesses and consumers should prepare for more rate hikes ahead.